The category of 'torture' has been used by Western states to distinguish between the civilised and the uncivilised. The moral and political stakes are often simply too high for the British state to admit responsibility for such an act, according to research.
All features (justice)
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Almost a quarter of people on jury service are confused about rules on internet use during a trial, according to findings from the ESRC-funded UCL Jury Project.
People in Nordic countries have a high level of trust in the police and courts, while people in Eastern European countries tend to be the least trusting of justice institutions, according to recent findings from the ESRC-supported European Social Survey.
Sixty-five per cent of studied rape cases studied were lost at the earliest stage of the justice process, with police decision to take no further action a significant factor. Research shows that police assess a combination of features of the victim and of the incident to determine 'good cases' for court.
Research into prison reform and sentencing shows huge variations in the quality of private prisons, a lack of support regarding interrupted education and training, and the value of care-based interaction between staff and prisoners.
Low election turnouts threaten government legitimacy.